December 30, 2012

Chram Mari Magdaleny / Church of Mary Magdalene, Jerusalem



18. 12. 2012
Je neuveritelne, ze po navsteve Karlovych Varu, naseho hlavniho mesta Prahy nebo dovolene v Egypte i v Jeruzaleme narazite na masy Rusu. Udelala jsem si mensi pruzkum proc tomu tak je a nepozapomenu vam predstait jednu z panoramickych ikon Jeruzalema. Rusky pravoslavny chram s typicky ruskymi zlacenymi cibulovymi kopulemi nechal postavit car Alexandr III. na pamatku matky, jejiz patronkou byla Mari Magdalena.

It is unbelievable that after a visit of Karlovy Vary, our capital city Prague or vacation in Egypt also in Jerusalem you're going to encounter masses of Russians. I did a bit of a research why this is happening and  I won't forget to show you one panoramic icon of Jerusalem. Russian orthodox church with typical Russian gilded onion domes has been built by Czar Alexander III. as the memory on his mother, whose patron was Mary Magdalena.

Rusky pravoslavny chram byl postaven v roce 1885 na pamatku Marie Alexandrovny. Pysni se prijemnou polohou uprostred stromku a sedm zlacenych cibulovych bani se radi k nejuchvatnejsim dominantam Jeruzalema pri pohledu za Stareho mesta. Kopule a dalsi architektonicke a dekorativni prvky byly provedeny v ruskem stylu 16. a 17. stoleti. V roce 1888 kostel vysvetili velkovevoda Sergej Alexandrovic (bratr cara Alexandra III.) s choti Alzbetou Fjodorovnou. Pote, co byla behem bolsevicke revoluce zavrazdena, tu v roce 1920 pohrbili jeji ostatky.
Rusti krestane patri k vychodni pravoslavne cirkvi, jejimz centrem byvala Konstantinopol. V 19. stoleti, kdy evropske mocnosti souperily o casti rozpadajici se osmanske rise, se Rusove ukazali jako nastupci byzantske rise a skutecni "obhajci krestanstvi a svatych mist". V te dobe kazdorocne proudilo do Jeruzalema zhruba 200 000 ruskych poutniku. Ruska vlada ve velkem skupovala pozemky, zvlaste na Olivove hore a zapadne od Stareho mesta. Rusove postavili ohromnou katedralu, konzulat, nemocnici a nekolik hospicu a vse obehnali zdi, takze to vypadalo jako mesto ve meste. Za 1. svetove valky vsak obsadili Jeruzalem Britove a zkonfiskovali veskery majetek Rusu, ktery prohlasili za "nepratelske instituce". Urcity pocet belogravdejcu (priznivcu monarchie) zde po valce nicmene zustal. 
V soucasne dobe Rusove vlastni jen katedralu sv. Trojice a Sergeju dvur v Ruske enklave, nebot mnoho ostatnich budov postoupil byvaly Sovetsky svaz Izraeli vymenou za dodavky pomerancu.

Russian Orthodox Church was built in 1885 in memory of Maria Alexandrovna in a pleasant location in the middle of the trees. The seven golden onion roof tops are one of the most evocative landmarks of Jerusalem at the sight from the Old city. Domes and other architectural and decorative elements were carried out in the Russian style of the 16th and 17 century. In 1888 the church was consecrated by Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (brother of Czar Alexander III.) with wife Elisabeth Feodorovna. After they were murdered during the Bolshevik revolution were here in 1920, buried her remains.
Russian Christians belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church, their center used to be Constantinople. In the 19th century, when European powers vied for parts of the crumbling Ottoman Empire, the Russians proved to be a successor of the Byzantine Empire and the actual "defenders of Christianity and holy sites". At that time annually flowed into Jerusalem roughly 200,000 Russian pilgrims. Russian government bought up a large land of the Holy land. Mostly around the Mount of Olives and the west of the Old city. Russians built here great cathedrals, a consulate, a hospital and several hospice and everything was surrounded by a wall, so it seemed like a city within a city. In the time of the World War I., however, the British occupied Jerusalem, and confiscated all the property of the Russians and declared them as "enemy institutions". Certain number of monarchy supporters returned here after the war. Today own the Russians just the Cathedral of Saint Trinity and Sergei courtyard in the Russian enclave, since many other buildings ceded the former Soviet Union to Israel in exchange for the supply of oranges.

Rozhodnutí předat Rusku komplex bylo přijato v roce 2008 a formálně oznámeno tehdejším premiérem Ehudem Olmertem při jeho návštěvě Ruska. Vlastnické právo bylo na Rusko převedeno, ale komplex nadále fakticky užíval Izrael. Nacházely se v něm jeruzalémské úřadovny ministerstva zemědělství a společnosti na ochranu přírody.
Olmert tehdy ustoupil ruskému diplomatickému tlaku a zprávy v médiích uváděly, že opuštění komplexu je součást rusko-izraelské dohody, podle níž se Rusko na oplátku zavázalo nedodat Íránu moderní rakety země-vzduch.
Sergejův dvůr byl vlastněn velkovévodou Sergejem Alexandrovičem (Сергей Александрович), strýcem cara Mikuláše II. (Николай II), který stál v čele Imperiální pravoslavné palestinské společnosti (Императорское Православное Палестинское Общество, Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society, IOPS).
Cely clanek ZDE. English version HERE.




















Moje osobni varovani pro navsteniky chramu: Nefotte vsudypritomne jeptisky! Stanou se ihned hodne hodne neprijemne!
One warning from me: please don't take pictures of the nuns! They can become very very rude to you in a second!
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